How Psychologically Safe does your team feel?

As per this article, Google conducted a two-year long study into what makes their best teams great and found psychological safety to be the most important factor.

As per Wikipedia, psychological safety can be defined as:

“feeling able to show and employ one’s self without fear of negative consequences of self-image, status or career”

It certainly seems logical to me that creating a safe working environment where people are free to share their individual opinions and avoid group think, is highly important.

So the key question is how can you foster psychological safety?

Some of the best advice I’ve read was from this this blog by Steven M Smith.  He suggests performing the paper-based voting exercise to measure safety.

Whilst we’ve found this to be good technique, the act of screwing up bits of paper is tedious and hard to do remotely.  Hence we’ve created an online tool:

https://safetychecker.herokuapp.com/

Please give it a go and share your experiences!

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Reducing Continuous Delivery Impedance – Part 5: Learned Helplessness

Nearly two years ago, I started this blog series to describe the main challenges I’d experienced trying to implement Continuous Delivery.  At the time, the last post in the series was about four challenges related to people.  Since then I’ve observed a fifth challenge and discovered it has been studied in psychology and has a name.

In this post I’ll attempt to describe how to recognise and tackle Learned Helplessness.  Please share your comments (especially if my Psychology-by-Wikipedia needs guidance).

Through various interactions with clients, at meetups, conferences and even with my own team, I’ve witnessed the following phenomena:

  • Something is done (or not done) on an engagement that makes Continuous Delivery difficult (for example the development team accepting SonarQube saying some seriously defamatory things about their unit test coverage but neglecting even to gradually address this).
  • When questioned:
    • many people already appreciate that this is very wrong.
    • hardly anyone can really explain or justify why this is happening.
    • hardly anyone seems worked up about a solution.

It gave me an impression that people had experienced good practice in the past, but having joined this particular engagement had somehow lost the inclination to do it.  It’s possible that for some people, in the past when things just worked, they didn’t question it, so never really appreciated the value of particular practices.  But I think most people are more analytical than that.  I started to realise that people probably had gone through an experience like this:

  • Joined the engagement, didn’t understand why certain things were / weren’t done, but opted to observe before speaking up.
  • Realised things actually weren’t magically working in some new logic- / experience- defying way.
  • Spoke up but didn’t really get listened to.
  • Spoke up again several times , but didn’t really ever get listened to.
  • Gave up and accepted things for the sorry way that they are.

I figured there must be a name for this, started googling and realised it is called Learned Helplessness, something that was first experimented in the 1960’s by some scientists we can probably assume weren’t dog lovers…

The experiments are best described here on Wikipedia but in extremely simplified form:

  1. some dogs were given no random electric shocks,
  2. some dogs were given shocks and also given a button to press to disable the shocks,
  3. some dogs received shocks at the same time as group 2 dogs but had no button.  Group 3 dogs were paired with Group 2 dogs and were shocked until their Group 2 pair happened to press the button (which was at a random time from the Group 3 dog’s perspective).

The learned helplessness of Group 3 was demonstrated in the second part of the experiments when dogs had the opportunity to cross over a small wall to avoid getting shocks.  Whereas groups 1 and 2 quickly learned how to avoid shocks, group 3 all failed to learn and sat their accepting their fate in pain.

http://wariscrime.com/new/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/seligman-2.jpg

The similarity of the above diagram to diagrams about DevOps like this made me smile!

Subsequent experiments demonstrated the ineffectiveness of threats or even rewards on motivating group 3 to change their location.  Only by physically teaching the group 3 dogs to move more than twice did they learn to overcome the helplessness.  Later experiments also proved the same phenomena in humans (without electricity).

So how do we overcome this?

Here are some things I’m experimenting with:

  • Try some introspection – ask yourself what you’ve learnt to accept, really look around for things that are stopping your project going faster – no matter how obvious, and start to ask why, perhaps at least 5 times.
  • Ask others around you ideally at all levels of experience less, the same and more than you what they think is preventing learning and improvement and consider asking “5 Whys” with them.
  • Pay close attention to new joiners to your team – they are the only ones not yet infected by Learned Helplessness.
  • Be sensitive with people.  No-one wants to be told they are “helpless” or hear your amateur psychobabble.  Tread carefully.
  • If you are looking to impart a change, don’t over estimate the impact of threatening or incentivising the people who need to change – they may already be too apathetic.  Instead expect to need to show them multiple times:
    • That the proposed change is possible.  You need to demonstrate it to them (for example if it relates to Continuous Delivery something like the DevOps Platform may help make things real).
    • That their opinions count and they have an important voice.

How is Learned Helplessness harming your organisation and to what extent are you suffering?